CNC lathe tools are aimed at the processing of parts and components in the machinery manufacturing industry, which improves the production efficiency and guarantees the uniformity of product quality. Reduced labor intensity and corporate costs. At the same time, it has also promoted the rapid development of world industry and entered a new stage. So what are the structure and components of cnc lathe tools:
(1) Program preparation and program carrier.
The CNC program is a work instruction for a CNC machine to automatically process a part. Based on the process analysis of the part, the relative position of the part coordinate system on the machine tool coordinate system is determined, and all the movements, dimensions and process parameters of the part are obtained. The process route or processing sequence of the part processing, the process parameters of the cutting process and auxiliary devices Movement, etc., so as to obtain all the movement, size and process parameters of the part, and other processing information. Then, according to the prescribed method and format, the CNC code composed of characters, arrays and symbols compiles the CNC program list for part processing.
Programming can be done manually or by using an automatic programming computer system outside the CNC machine tool; for more advanced CNC machine tools, it can be directly programmed on its CNC device. The programmed numerical control program is stored on a storage medium that is convenient for input into the numerical control device, such as a magnetic card or a magnetic disk. Which storage medium is used depends on the design type of the numerical control device.
(2) Input device.
The function of the input device is that the CNC code on the program carrier becomes the corresponding electric pulse signal, which is transmitted and stored in the CNC device. Depending on the program storage medium, the input device may be an optoelectronic device such as a reader, a VCR, or a floppy disk drive. Some CNC machine tools do not use any program storage carrier. Instead, the contents of the CNC program list are communicated to the keyboard on the CNC device by manual input (MDI method), or the CNC program is transmitted to the CNC device by a programming computer through communication.
(3) Numerical control device and strong current control device.
The CNC device is the core of the CNC machine tool. It accepts the pulse signals sent by the input device. After the system software or logic circuit of the CNC device compiles, transports, and processes the logic, it outputs various signals and instructions to control various parts of the machine tool. Orderly actions. Among these control signals, the most basic signals are the feed displacement amount, feed direction, and speed command of each coordinate axis determined by interpolation calculation, and the actuator is driven by the servo drive system to perform feed motion. In addition, there are signals for the shifting, reversing and stopping of the main moving parts, tool command signals for selecting and replacing tools, switching of cutting fluid, loosening and clamping of workpieces and machine tool parts, indexing of indexing tables, etc. Auxiliary command signal.
The strong electric control device is a control system between the numerical control device and the machine tool and hydraulic components. Its main function is to receive command signals such as the main motion speed change, tool selection and replacement, and auxiliary device operation output from the numerical control device, and directly drive the corresponding electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic, and mechanical components after necessary compilation, logical judgment, and power amplification. Complete the action specified by the instruction component. Switching signals such as the travel switch and monitoring and detection must also be sent to the numerical control device for processing through the strong current control device.
(4) Servo drive system and position detection device.
The servo drive system is composed of a servo drive circuit and a servo drive device (such as a servo motor), and the feeding system of the CNC machine tool is composed of the executive parts and mechanical transmission parts on the bed, and the executing parts are controlled according to the speed and displacement instructions sent by the CNC device. Feed speed, direction and displacement. Each actuator for feed motion is equipped with a servo drive system. The servo drive system is divided into open loop, semi-closed loop and closed loop. In semi-closed-loop and closed-loop servo drive systems, it is also necessary to use a position detection device to indirectly or directly measure the actual feed displacement of the actuator, and compare it with the command displacement to convert the error and enlarge the feed movement of the actuator.
(5) Mechanical parts of machine tools.
The mechanical parts of CNC machine tools include main moving parts, feed motion executing parts, worktables, carriages and their transmission parts, bed support columns and other supporting parts, as well as auxiliary devices such as cooling, lubrication, chip removal, indexing and clamping. For CNC machine tools of machining center type, there are parts such as a tool magazine for storing tools and a robot for replacing tools. The composition of CNC machine tool mechanical parts is similar to that of ordinary machine tools, but the transmission mechanism requires simpler, higher requirements in terms of accuracy, rigidity and shock resistance, and its transmission and transmission system should be convenient to realize automatic control.